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FranÃ§oise DUQUENNE, Alain COULOMB et FranÃ§ois L'ECU, France
IGN (French Geographical Institute or Institut national de lâinformation gÃ©ographique et
forestiÃ¨re) is in France the legal responsible of the references in geodesy and leveling. The
decree 2011-1371 dated October 27th 2011 states that IGN is responsible in "designing and
building a consistent geodetic infrastructure in coherence with international systems and
managing the national geographic, gravimetric and height reference systems." As IGN was
setting up its new geodetic reference (RGF93) and the access to this infrastructure via the
permanent GNSS reference network (RGP), currently with more than 400 stations, IGN has
arisen from year 2000 questions about the vertical reference infrastructure: should we
maintain a network of materialized benchmarks, how to maintain it, how to couple traditional
leveling measurement and GNSS measurement to improve productivity and to reduce costs?
After an user survey, the proposal called the "triplets" was therefore specified that any
inhabited area (village of over 200 inhabitants) should be at less than 5 km from a "triplet".
that is to say a group of at least three nearby benchmarks, tied by precise leveling and
allowing the user a quick check of stability through conventional leveling means.
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