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Indonesia is a maritime continent with a complex and active tectonic setting and therefore
prone to various natural hazards. The surface deformation caused by these hazards, coupled
with tectonic plate motion in and around the Indonesian region, will cause the geocentric
coordinates of many geodetic control benchmarks and monuments in Indonesia to change
with time. Since the 19th century, several local static topocentric geodetic datums have been
used for surveying and mapping in Indonesia. In 1975 the Indonesian Datum 1974, which is a
national static topocentric datum, was introduced and then replaced by the National Geodetic
Datum 1995 which is a static geocentric datum realized using GPS observations.
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