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Over the years, hydrographic surveyors have used lead lines, sounding pole, wire drag and
sounding machine to collect the bathymetry data. To date, the vessel-based echo sounding
surveys such as single beam echo sounder system (SBES) and multibeam echo sounder
system (MBES) are widely used in hydrographic surveying around the world. Nonetheless,
these vessel-based acoustic sonar methods are constrained by limited ground coverage,
difficulties to access shallow coastal water, labour intensive and high operating cost which
significantly limits of the frequent repetitions. The advancement of the satellite-derived
bathymetry has brought in the new revolution in hydrography.
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